ⓘ Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 was a Landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1950 in Topeka, Kansas, a black third- ..

                                     

ⓘ Brown v. Board of Education

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 was a Landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.

In 1950 in Topeka, Kansas, a black third-grade girl named Linda Brown had to walk more than a mile through a railroad switchyard to get to her segregated school for black children. However, there was an elementary school for white children less than seven blocks away. At that time, many schools in the United States were segregated. Black children and white children were not allowed to go to the same schools.

Her father, Oliver Brown, tried to get Linda into the white school, but the principal of the school refused. Twelve more black parents joined Oliver Brown in trying to get their children into the white elementary school. The two schools were supposed to be "separate but equal." However, they were not.

In 1951, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP helped the parents file a class action lawsuit. There were five lawsuits in Kansas, South Carolina, Virginia, Delaware, and the district of Colombia about having black students going to legally segregated schools. In 1896, the Supreme Court had ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that segregation was legal, as long as separate places for blacks and whites were "separate but equal." The NAACPs lawyers argued that the white and black schools in Topeka were not "separate but equal."

Kenneth Clark is a psychologist that gave young African-American children black and white dolls to see how they felt about segregation and integration. The children liked the white dolls. After the doll test, Clark also gave the black children drawings of a kid and asked them to color it like themselves. Some of the children colored themselves with a white or yellow crayon, which was also used in the case.

The case eventually went all the way to the Supreme Court. After years of work, in 1954, Thurgood Marshall and a team of other NAACP lawyers won the case. It was named "Brown" because she was alphabetically the first name on the list of plaintiffs. After the lawsuit many of the plaintiffs lost their jobs and respect in society.

                                     

1. The ruling

The Supreme Court has nine justices. The vote on Brown v. Board of Education was unanimous, meaning that all nine justices voted the same way. One of the judges, Robert Jackson, had recently had a heart attack and was not supposed to come back to court until the next month. However, he came to the court when the judges read their decision, possibly to show that every one of the judges agreed.

The ruling in the case was written by Earl Warren, who was Chief Justice. He said" separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." This decision made the racial segregation of schools against the law in every US state.

Some states did not obey this court decision at first. The supreme Court ruled the schools had up to 5 years to desegregate. It was not until the early 1970s that all United States public schools were integrated the opposite of segregated. Integrating Americas schools required many state and Supreme Court decisions to force schools to integrate.

                                     

2. Other websites

These links may not be in simple English:

  • Ten Things You Should Know About Brown v. Board of Education
  • United States National Park Service Historic Site: Monroe Elementary School, one of the segregated elementary schools in Topeka
  • The Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision from FindLaw
                                     
  • Brown v Board of Education II often called Brown II was a Supreme Court case decided in 1955. The year before, the Supreme Court had decided Brown
  • John Marshall Harlan. In 1954, Brown v Board of Education partially overturned the Plessy v Ferguson ruling. The State of Louisiana passed a law saying
  • Reports. For example, the case Brown et al., v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, is cited this way: Brown v Bd. of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 1954 This
  • legally justified by Plessy until it was overturned in 1954 by Brown v Board of Education After the American Civil War, the Republican controlled Congress
  • A decision is also the result of a legal case. The decision in Brown v Board of Education was to end segregation. Decision theory is a field of math.
  • United States. He was Chief Justice when the Supreme Court issued Brown v Board of Education and Miranda vs. Arizona. These two cases were very important
  • schools. While the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court landmark decision in Brown v Board of Education declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional
  • group of African - American students who were in the Little Rock Central High School, Arkansas in 1957, following the Court decision in Brown v Board of Education
  • 1933 Brown v. Board of Education 1954 Griswold v Connecticut 1965 Oneida Indian Nation of N.Y. State v Oneida County 1974 Adams v Cape Industries
  • had been one of the NAACP s top lawyers. He was one of the lawyers who argued Brown v Board of Education He was also Solicitor General of the United States
  • is known as Brown v Board of Education The other Jim Crow laws were abolished by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The National